It is typical of cancer cells that they can quickly alter their DNA; however, in their haste to acquire new mutations, they carelessly discard many of their inherited genetic variations. This may lead to cancer cells only retaining a defective allele of a gene from one parent, whereas healthy cells also have a functioning allele from the other parent. This characteristic of cancer cells may well be an Achilles heel that can be utilised in the development of new drugs.
“We searched for genes of which many people carry both a functioning and defective allele in their DNA. One such gene, NAT2, produces a protein that metabolises a number of drugs and is of particular interest as one allele is often lost during the development of colon and rectal cancer,” explains Tobias Sjöblom of Uppsala University’s Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
Based on their discovery, the researchers developed a substance that kills cells lacking NAT2 and were also able to demonstrate that it can be used to treat animal models of cancer and tumour cells from patients.
“The conditions for treatment exist in 50,000 of the colorectal cancer patients diagnosed globally each year and we will therefore continue working to identify substances with even better properties for pharmaceutical development,” says Tobias Sjöblom.
contact for scientific information:
Tobias Sjöblom professor at the Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University
Tel: +46 701-679039, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Veronica Rendo, Ivaylo Stoimenov, André Mateus, Elin Sjöberg, Richard Svensson, Anna-Lena Gustavsson, Lars Johansson, Adrian Ng, Casey Obrien, Marios Giannakis, Per Artursson, Peter Nygren, Ian Cheong, and Tobias Sjöblom, (2019) Exploiting loss of heterozygosity for allele-selective colorectal cancer chemotherapy, Nature Communication. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-15111-4